# CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 [Science]

1132

## Syllabus for Physics

### Course Structure

 Unit Chapter / Topic Marks I Physical World and Measurement 23 Chapter–1: Physical World Chapter–2: Units and Measurements II Kinematics Chapter–3: Motion in a Straight Line Chapter–4: Motion in a Plane III Laws of Motion Chapter–5: Laws of Motion IV Work, Energy and Power 17 Chapter–6: Work, Energy and Power V Motion of System of Particles Chapter–7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion VI Gravitation Chapter–8: Gravitation VII Properties of Bulk Matter 20 Chapter–9: Mechanical Properties of Solids Chapter–10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids Chapter–11: Thermal Properties of Matter VIII Thermodynamics Chapter–12: Thermodynamics IX Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter–13: Kinetic Theory X Oscillation & Waves 10 Chapter–14: Oscillations Chapter–15: Waves Total 70

### Unit I: Physical World and Measurement

Chapter–1: Physical World

Physics – scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

Chapter–2: Units and Measurements

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

### Unit II: Kinematics

Chapter–3: Motion in a Straight Line

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time and position-time graphs.

Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Chapter–4: Motion in a Plane

Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and their notations; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Scalar and Vector product of vectors.

Motion in a plane, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

### Unit III: Laws of Motion

Chapter–5: Laws of Motion

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion.

Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

### Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power

Chapter–6: Work, Energy and Power

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.

Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

### Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

Chapter–7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.

Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod.

Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, laws of conservation of angular momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions.

Moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

### Unit VI: Gravitation

Chapter–8: Gravitation

Keplar’s laws of planetary motion.The universal law of gravitation.

Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

### Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

Chapter–9: Mechanical Properties of Solids

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of rigidity, Poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.

Chapter–10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.

Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity.Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Chapter–11: Thermal Properties of Matter

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion of water; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat capacity.

Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein’s displacement Law, Stefan’s law, Green house effect.

### Unit VIII: Thermodynamics

Chapter–12: Thermodynamics

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics).Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engine and refrigerator.

### Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases

Chapter–13: Kinetic Theory

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.

Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation of temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equi-partition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

### Unit X: Oscillations and Waves

Chapter–14: Oscillations

Periodic motion – time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.

Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period.

Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Chapter–15: Waves

Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.

## Syllabus for Chemistry

### Course Structure

 Unit Title Marks I Basic Concepts of Chemistry 11 II Structure of Atom III Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties 4 IV Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 21 V States of Matter: Gases and Liquids VI Thermodynamics VII Equilibrium VIII Redox Reactions 16 IX Hydrogen X s-Block Elements XI Some p-Block Elements XII Organic Chemistry: Basic Principles & Techniques 18 XIII Hydrocarbons XIV Environmental Chemistry Total 70

### Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.

Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

### Unit II: Structure of Atom

Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model and its limitations. Rutherford’s model and its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

### Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.

### Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond; bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s,p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

### Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea)Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)

### Unit VI: Chemical Thermodynamics

Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.

First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat,  measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction)

Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb’s energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.

Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).

### Unit VII: Equilibrium

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle, ionic equilibrium-ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

### Unit VIII: Redox Reaction

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.

### Unit IX: Hydrogen

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide -preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.

### Unit X: s -Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group 1 and Group 2 Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.

Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:

Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogencarbonate, Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium. Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.

### Unit XI: Some p -Block Elements

General Introduction to p – Block Elements

Group 13 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron – physical and chemical properties, some important compounds, Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.

Group 14 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements. Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.

### Unit XII: Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Technique

General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

### Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons

Classification of Hydrocarbons

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:

Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.

### Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution.

PRACTICALS

Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible such techniques should be used.

A. Basic Laboratory Techniques

1. Cutting glass tube and glass rod

2. Bending a glass tube

3. Drawing out a glass jet

4. Boring a cork

B. Characterization and Purification of Chemical Substance

1. Determination of melting point of an organic compound.

2. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound.

3. Crystallization involving impure sample of any one of the following: Alum, copper sulphate, Benzoic acid.

C. Experiments Related to pH Change

(a) Any one of the following experiments:

• Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solutions of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.

• Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration.

• Study the pH change in the titration of a strong acid with a strong base using universal indicator.

(b) Study of pH change by common-ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases.

D. Chemical Equilibrium

One of the following experiments:

(a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocynate ions by increasing /decreasing the concentration of either of the ions.

(b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co (H2 O)6 ] 2+and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.

E. Quantitative Estimation

• Using a chemical balance.

• Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.

• Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid.

• Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate.

• Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating it against standard sodium carbonate solution.

F. Qualitative Analysis

(a) Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt Cations – 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ + Pb ,Cu ,As ,Al ,Fe ,Mn ,Ni ,Zn ,Co ,Ca ,Sr ,Ba ,Mg ,NH4 Anions – 22 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 2 3 4 24 3 – – – – – – – — – – – CO ,S ,SO ,SO ,NO ,NO ,Cl ,Br ,I ,PO ,C O ,CH COO (Note : Insoluble salts excluded)

(b) Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine, in organic compounds.

PROJECT:

Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.

A few suggested projects

• Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ions.

• Study of the methods of purification of water.

• Testing the hardness, presence of iron, fluoride, chloride etc. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presences of these ions above permissible limit (if any)

• Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them.

• Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.

• Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.

• Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.

• Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity.

[Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.]

## Syllabus for Mathematics

### Course Structure

 Unit Topic Marks I. Sets and Functions 29 II. Algebra 37 III. Co-ordinate Geometry 13 IV. Calculus 6 V. Mathematical Reasoning 3 VI. Statistics and Probability 12 Total 100

### Unit-I: Sets and Functions

1. Sets

Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite and Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. Subsets of a set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set. Properties of Complement Sets. Practical Problems based on sets.

2. Relations & Functions

Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the sets of real (upto R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain and range of a function. Real valued functions, domain and range of these functions: constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum, exponential, logarithmic and greatest integer functions, with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.

3. Trigonometric Functions

Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion of one into other. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the sin2x+cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions. Domain and range of trignometric functions and their graphs. Expressing sin (x±y) and cos (x±y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy and their simple application. Deducing identities like the following:

Identities related to sin 2x, cos2x, tan 2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin y = sin a, cos y = cos a and tan y = tan a.

### Unit-II: Algebra

1. Principle of Mathematical Induction

Process of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.

2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

Need for complex numbers, especially √1, to be motivated by inability to solve some of the quardratic equations. Algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. Square root of a complex number.

3. Linear Inequalities

Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Graphical solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables.

4. Permutations and Combinations

Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!)Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.

5. Binomial Theorem

History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.

6. Sequence and Series

Sequence and Series. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.). Arithmetic Mean (A.M.) Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., Arithmetic and Geometric series infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Formula for the following special sum:

### Unit-III: Coordinate Geometry

1. Straight Lines

Brief recall of two dimensional geometry from earlier classes. Shifting of origin. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axis, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercept form and normal form. General equation of a line. Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Distance of a point from a line.

2. Conic Sections

Sections of a cone: circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola; a point, a straight line and a pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.

3. Introduction to Three–dimensional Geometry

Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.

### Unit-IV: Calculus

1. Limits and Derivatives

Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically.

Intuitive idea of limit. Limits of polynomials and rational functions, trignometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of a curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. The derivative of polynomial and trignometric functions.

### Unit-V: Mathematical Reasoning

1. Mathematical Reasoning

Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases – consolidating the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words difference between contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

### Unit-VI: Statistics and Probability

1. Statistics

Measures of dispersion; Range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.

2. Probability

Random experiments; outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events; occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events.

## Syllabus for Engineering Graphics

### Course Structure

 S.No. Chapter / Topic Marks Unit-I Plane Geometry 16 1 Lines, angles and rectilinear figures 2 Circles and tangents 3 Special curves: ellipse, parabola, involute, cycloid. helix and sine-curve Unit-II Solid Geometry 27 4 Orthographic-projections of points, lines laminae, (plane) and solids 5 Section of solid-figures Unit-III Machine Drawing 27 6 Orthographic projections of simple machine-blocks 7 Isometric-projection of laminae (plane) figures 8 Development of surfaces IV. Practical 30 Total Marks 100

### I. PLANE GEOMETRY

Printing English alphabets (capital and small) numerals in standard proportions.

Unidirectional/aligned system of dimensioning as per SP: 46-2003 (Revised)

Unit 1:

Construction of lines, angles and their divisions. Simple questions based on triangles, square, rhombus, trapeziums, regular polygons-pentagon, hexagon and octagon.

Unit 2:

Construction of circles, external and internal tangents of circles, inscribing, circumscribing circles in equilateral triangle, square, rhombus, regular polygons-pentagon, hexagon and octagon.

Unit 3:

Construction of Engineering curves:

• (a) Ellipses by concentric circles, intersecting arcs and intersecting lines.
• (b) Parabola by intersecting lines and intersecting arcs.
• (c) Involute of a circle, cycloid, helix and sine curve.

### II. SOLID GEOMETRY

Unit 4:

Methods of orthographic projections and dimensioning strictly as per SP: 46- 2003 revised conventions. Projection of points, lines, regular plane figure and right regular solids such as cubes, prisms and pyramids (square, triangular, pentagonal and hexagonal), cones, cylinders, spheres, hemispheres and frustum of pyramids and cone when they are kept with their axis (a) perpendicular, to HP/VP (b) parallel to one plane and inclined to the other (c) parallel to HP and VP both.

Unit 5:

Section of solids under the same conditions mentioned above made by the horizontal, vertical and inclined planes, also showing true-shape of section.

### III. MACHINE DRAWING

Unit 6:

Orthographic projections of simple machine blocks.

Unit 7:

Construction of isometric scale showing main divisions of 10 mm and smaller divisions of 1 mm each. Isometric projection (drawn to isometric scale) of figures such as triangles, squares, pentagons, hexagons, circles and semi-circles with their surface parallel to HP or VP and its one side or diagonal or diameter should be either parallel or perpendicular to HP/VP.

Unit 8:

Development of the surfaces of following solids:

• 1. Cube, cuboid, prisms-triangular, square, pentagonal and hexagonal.
• 2. Pyramids (triangular, square, pentagonal and hexagonal).
• 3. Right circular cylinder and cone.

### IV. PRACTICALS

1. Developing “Prisms” and “Pyramids” with the help of card board (thick paper).
2. Developing different types of packing boxes (cartons).
3. Making different types of graphic designs/murals for interior/exterior decorations in colour using the knowledge of geometrical figures with the use of any Computer Software such as Collab-CAD, CORAL DRAW, PHOTOSHOP, etc.
4. Drawing ellipse by Trammel and Thread method on the ground / drawing sheet / plywood / cardboard, etc.
5. Preparing top-view (plan) of a class room, Home: Drawing room / Bedroom / Study room / Kitchen, Engineering Graphics room drawing different objects therein.
6. Drawing through activities: Involutes, cycloid, helix and sine curves listing their uses in daily life.
7. Preparing the following sections of solids (prisms, pyramids, spheres, etc.) with clay, soap, thermocol, plasticine, wax or any other material easily and economically available. When the cutting plane is: parallel to the base, perpendicular to the base and inclined to the base. Also creating different objects with combination of above solids.

## Biology Class 11 Syllabus

 Unit Title Marks 1. Diversity of Living Organisms 7 2. Structural Organisation in Plants & Animals 11 3. Cell: Structure and Function 15 4. Plant Physiology 17 5. Human Physiology (A) – Section for OTBA Human Physiology (B) 10* + 10 Total 70

*This section will be assessed through OTBA only.

### Unit I: Diversity of Living Organism

Chapter-1: The Living World

What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.

Chapter-2: Biological Classification

Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.

Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom

Salient features and classification of animals non chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category).

### Unit 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

Morphology and modifications: Tissues

Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals

Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)

### Unit 3: Cell Structure and Function

Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Chapter-9: Biomolecules

Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.

Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

### Unit 4: Plant Physiology

Chapter-11: Transport in Plants

Transport in plants; Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata;Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis; diffusion of gases.

Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition

Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photo respiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development

Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.

### Unit 5: Human Physiology (A)

Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption

Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

### Human Physiology (B)

Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination

Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.

Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement

Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle-contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination

Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.

Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary Idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addision’s disease.

## Syllabus for Biotechnology

### Course Structure

 Units Topics Marks Unit – I Biotechnology: An overview 5 Unit – II Molecules of Life 20 Unit – III Genes & Genomes 20 Unit – IV Cells and Organisms 25 Practicals 30 Total 100

### Unit-I: Biotechnology: An overview

Chapter 1: Introduction to Biotechnology

Historical Perspectives; Production Strategies in Biotechnology; Quality Control; Product Safety; Good Manufacturing Practices; Good Laboratory Practices; Intellectual Property; Public Perception; Global market; Biotechnology in India and Global Trends

### Unit-II: Molecules of Life

Chapter 1: Biomolecules: Building Blocks

Building Blocks of Carbohydrates – Sugars and Their Derivatives; Building Blocks of Proteins – Amino Acids; Building Blocks of Lipids – Simple Fatty Acids, Sphingosine, Glycerol and Cholesterol; Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids – Nucleotides; Biochemical Transformations

Chapter 2: Macromolecules: Structure & Function

Carbohydrates – The Energy Givers; Proteins – The Performers; Enzymes – The Catalysts; Lipids and Biomembranes – The Barriers; Nucleic Acids – The Managers

### Unit III: Genes & Genomes

Chapter 1: Gene Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Components; Tissues and Organs; Stem cells; Biodiversity; Organization of Life

Chapter 2: Genomes Organization & Function

Cell Division; Cell Cycle; Cell Communication; Movement; Nutrition; Gaseous Exchanges; Internal Transport; Maintaining the Internal Enviornment; Reproduction; In vitro Fertilization; Animal and Plant Development; Immune Response in Animals; Programmed Cell Death; Defense Mechanisms in Plants

### Unit IV: Cells and Organisms

Chapter 1: Cells: The Basic Unit of Life

Historical Perspective; Multiple Alleles; Linkage and Crossing Over; Genetic Mapping; Gene Interaction; Sex-Linked Inheritance; Extranuclear Inheritance; Quantitative Inheritance; Genes at Population Level; Discovery of DNA as Genetic Material; Mutations; DNA Repair; Genetic Disorders

Chapter 2: Organisms: Structure & Dynamics

Genome Organization; DNA Replication; Fine Structure of Genes; From Gene to Protein; Transcription – The Basic Process; Genetic Code; Translation; Regulation of Gene Expression

### PRACTICALS

• Preparation of buffers and pH determination
• Sterilization techniques
• Preparation of bacterial growth medium
• Isolation of bacteria from curd and staining of bacteria
• Determination of bacterial growth curve
• Study of various stages of mitosis and calculation of mitotic index
• Preparation of karyotyping
• Cell counting
• Isolation of genomic DNA
• Detection of DNA by gel electrophoresis
• Isolation of milk protein (Casein)
• Estimation of protein by biuret method
• Assaying the enzyme acid phosphate

## Syllabus for Computer Science

### Course Structure

 Unit Title Marks 1. Computer Fundamentals 10 2. Programming Methodology 12 3. Introduction to Python/C++ 18/14 4. Programming with Python/C++ 30/34 Total 70

### Unit 1: Computer Fundamentals

Classification  of  computers: basics of computer and its operation; functional components and their interconnections, concept of booting.

Software concepts: Types of Software – system software, utility software and application software

System Software: Operating system, complier, interpreter and assembler

Operating System: Need for operating system, functions of operating system (processor management, memory management, file management and device management), types of operating system-interactive (GUI based), time sharing, real time and distributed, commonly used operating system: UNIX, LINUX, Windows, Solaris, BOSS (Bharat Operating System Solutions); Mobile OS –Android, Symbian.

Utility Software: Anti Virus, File Management tools, Compression tools and Disk Management tools (Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, Backup).

Open Source Concepts: Open source software, freeware, shareware, proprietary software.

Application Software: Office tools – word processor, presentation tool, spreadsheet package, database management system; domain specific tools – school management system, inventory management system, payroll system, financial accounting, hotel management, reservation system and weather forecasting system.

Number System: Binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal and conversion between two different number systems.

Internal Storage encoding of Characters: ASCII, ISCII (Indian Scripts Standard Code for Information Interchange), and UNICODE (for multilingual computing)

Microprocessor: Basic concepts, Clock speed (MHz, GHz), 16 bit, 32 bit, 64 bit, 128 bit processors; Types – CISC Processors (Complex Instruction Set Computing), RISC Processors (Reduced Instruction Set Computing), and EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing).

Memory Concepts: Units: Byte, Kilo Byte, Mega Byte, Giga Byte, Tera Byte, Peta Byte, Exa Byte, Zetta Byte, Yotta Byte.

Primary Memory: Cache, RAM, ROM

Secondary Memory: Fixed and Removable storage – Hard Disk Drive, CD/DVD Drive, Pen Drive, Blue Ray Disk.

Input Output Ports/ Connections: Serial, Parallel and Universal Serial Bus, PS-2 port, Infrared port, Bluetooth, Firewire.

### Unit 2: Programming Methodology

General Concepts: Clarity and simplicity of expressions, Use of proper names for identifiers, comments, indentation; documentation and program maintenance; running and debugging programs, syntax errors, run-time errors, logical errors

Problem solving methodologies: Understanding of the problem, solution for the problem, breaking down solution into simple steps (modular approach), identification of arithmetic and logical operations required for solution; control structure- conditional control and looping (finite and infinite).

Problem Solving: Introduction to algorithms/flowcharts.

### Unit 3: Introduction to Python

Getting Started: Introduction to Python – an integrated high level language, interactive mode and script mode. Data types –Number (Integer – boolean, decimal, octal, hexadecimal; Floating point; Complex), none, Sequence (String,Tuples, List ) Sets, Mapping.

Mutable and Immutable Variables

Variables, Expressions and Statements: Values, Variables and keywords; Operators and Operands in Python: (Arithmetic, relational and logical operators), operator precedence, Expressions and Statements (Assignment statement); Taking input (using raw_input() and input()) and displaying output (print statement); Putting Comments.

Functions: Importing Modules (entire module or selected objects), invoking built in functions, functions from math module (for example, ceil, floor, fabs, exp, log, log10, pow, sqrt, cos, sin, tan, degrees, radians), using random() and randint() functions of random module to generate random numbers, composition.

Defining functions, invoking functions, passing parameters (default parameter values, keyword arguments), scope of variables, void functions and functions returning values, flow of execution

Conditional constructs and looping: if else statement while, for (range function), break, continue, else, pass, nested if, nested loops, use of compound expression in conditional and looping construct.

### Unit 4: Programming with Python

Strings: Creating, initialising and accessing the elements; string operators: +, *, in, not in, range slice [n:m]; comparing strings using relational operators; String functions & methods: len, capitalize, find, isalnum, isalpha, isdigit, lower, islower, isupper, upper, lstrip, rstrip, isspace, istitile, partition, replace, join, split, count, decode, encode, swapcase, String constants, Regular Expressions and Pattern Matching

Lists: Concept of mutable lists, creating, initializing and accessing the elements, traversing, appending, updating and deleting elements, composition, lists as arguments

List operations: joining, slicing, + , * , in , not in

List functions and methods: len( ), insert( ), append( ), extend( ), sort( ), remove( ), reverse( ), pop( ), list( ), count( ), extend( ), index( ), cmp( ), max( ), min( )

Dictionaries: Concept of key-value pair, creating, initializing and accessing the elements in a dictionary, traversing, appending updating and deleting elements

Dictionary Functions and methods: cmp( ), len( ), clear( ), get( ), has_key( ), items( ), key( ), update( ), values( ), pop( ), fromkeys( ), dict( )

Tuples: Immutable concept, creating, initializing and accessing elements in a tuple, Tuple assignment, Tuple slices, Tuple indexing,

Tuple Functions: cmp(), len(), max(), min(), tuple(), index(), count(), sum(), any(), all(), sorted(), reversed()

### Unit 3: Introduction To C++

Getting Started: C++ character set, C++ Tokens (Identifiers, Keywords, Constants, Operators,), Structure of a C++ Program (include files, main function), Header files – iostream.h, iomanip.h, cout, cin; use of I/O operators (<<and>>), Use of endl and setw ( ), Cascading of I/O operators, compilation , Error Messages; Use of editor, basic commands of editor, compilation, linking and execution.

Data Types, Variables and Constants: Concept of Data types; Built-in Data types: char, int, float and double; Constants: Integer Constants, Character constants – \n, \t, \b), Floating Point Constants, String Constants; Access modifier; Variables of built-in-datatypes, Declaration/Initialization of variables, Assignment statement, Type modifier: signed, unsigned, long

Operator and Expressions: Operators: Arithmetic operators (-,+,*,/,%),Assignment operator(=),C++ shorthands (+=,- =,*=,/=,%=) Unary operator (-), Increment(++) and Decrement (–) Operators, Relation operator (>,>=,<=,=,!=), Logical operators (!,&&,II),Conditional operator; Precedence of Operators; Automatic type conversion in expressions, Type casting;

### Unit 4: Programming In C++

Flow of control:

Conditional statements: if else, Nested if, switch..case..default, Nestedswitch..case, break statement (to be used in switch..case only); Loops: while, do – while, for and Nested loops

Inbuilt Functions

• Standard input/output functions – stdio.h: gets ( ), puts ( )
• Character Functions – Ctype.h: isalnum ( ), isalpha ( ),isdigit ( ), islower ( ), isupper ( ), tolower ( ), toupper ( )
• String Function – string.h: strcpy ( ), strcat ( ), strlen ( ), strcmp ( ), strcmpi ( ), strev ( ),strlen ( ), strupur ( ), strlwr ( )
• Mathematical Functions – math.h: fabs ( ), pow ( ), sgrt ( ), sin ( ), cos ( ), abs ( )
• Other Functions – stdlib.h: randomize ( ), random ( )

Introduction to user-defined function and its requirements.

Defining a function; function prototype, Invoking/calling a function, passing arguments to function, specifying argument data types, default argument, constant argument, call by value, call by reference, returning values from a function, scope rules; local and global variables.

Relating to Parameters and return type concepts in built-in functions.

Structured Data Type:

Arrays: Introduction to Array and its advantages.

One Dimensional Array: Declaration/initialization of One-dimensional array, inputting array elements, accessing array elements, manipulation of array elements (sum of elements, product of elements, average of elements, linear search, finding maximum/minimum value)

Declaration / Initialization of a String, string manipulations (counting vowels/ consonants/ digits/ special characters, case conversion, reversing a string, reversing each word of a string

Two-dimensional Array: Declaration/initialization of a two-dimensional array,inputting array elements accessing array elements, manipulation of array elements (sum of row element, column elements, diagonal elements, finding maximum / minimum values)

User-defined Data Types: Introduction to user defined data types.

Structure: Defining a Structure, declaring structure variables,accessing structure elements, passing structure to functions as value and reference, function returning structure, array of structure

Defining a symbol name using typedef keyword and defining a macro using #define pre-processor directive.

### Course Structure

 Section Area of Learning Marks A Reading Skills 20 B Writing Skills and Grammar 30 C Literature & Long Reading Text 30 D Assessment of Speaking & Listening Skills 20

Very short answer and MCQ type questions:

Two unseen passages (including poems) with a variety of questions including 4 marks for vocabulary such as word formation and inferring meaning. The total range of the 2 passages including a poem or a stanza, will be around 900-1000 words.

1. 550-600 words in length (for note-making and summarizing)
2. 350-400 words in length (to test comprehension, interpretation and inference)

An unseen poem of about 28-35 lines

The passages could be of any one of the following types:

• Factual passages, e.g., illustrations, description, reports
• Discursive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, persuasive
• Literary passages e.g. extracts from fiction, biography, autobiography, travelogue, etc. In the case of a poem, the text may be shorter than the prescribed word limit.

### SECTION B: Writing Skills and Grammar

Writing

• Long Answer Questions: Letters based on verbal/visual input. It would cover all types of letters.

Letter types may include:

1. business or official letters (for making inquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies)
2. letters to the editor (giving suggestions on an issue)
3. application for a job with a bio-data or resume
4. letter to the school or college authorities, regarding admissions, school issues, requirements /suitability of courses, etc.
• Very Long Answer Question: Composition in the form of article, speech, report writing or a narrative

Grammar

Different grammatical structures in meaningful contexts will be tested. Item types will include gap filling, sentence re-ordering, dialogue completion and sentence transformation. The grammar syllabus will include determiners, tenses, clauses, modals and Change of Voice. These grammar areas will be tested using the following short answer type and MCQ type questions:

• Re-ordering of Sentences
• Transformation of sentences

### Section C: Literature and Long Reading Texts

Questions to test comprehension at different levels: literal, inferential and evaluative

The following lessons have been deleted:

1. Landscape of the Soul
4. The Laburnum Top (Poetry)
5. The Ghat of the only World (Snapshots)
• Very Short Answer Questions – Based on an extract from poetry to test reference to context comprehension and appreciation.
• Short Answer Questions – Based on prose, poetry and plays from both the texts.
• Long Answer Question – Based on prescribed texts to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the texts to bring out the key messages and values.
• Long Answer Questions – Based on theme, plot, incidents or event from the prescribed novels.
• Long Answer Question – Based on understanding appreciation, analysis and interpretation of the characters.

Note: Values-based questions may be given as long answers in the writing or literature sections.

### Long Reading Texts / Novels (either one)

With a view to inculcate the habit of reading among the students, CBSE has introduced compulsory reading of a Long Reading Text – Novel in the English Core Course and will be evaluated in the Term-end Assessments. Schools can opt for either one of the texts.

i) The Canterville Ghost by Oscar Wilde (unabridged 1906 Edition)

ii) Up from Slavery by Booker T. Washington (unabridged 2000 Edition)